The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

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Batteries & Fuel Cellsx

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Model for Power vs. Energy Evaluation

A battery’s possible energy and power outputs are crucial to consider when deciding in which type of device it can be used. A cell with high rate capability is able to generate a considerable amount of power, that is, it suffers from little polarization (voltage loss) even at high ... Read More

Lithium-Ion Battery with Multiple Intercalating Electrode Materials

Lithium-ion batteries can have multiple active materials in both the positive and negative electrodes. For example, the positive electrode can have a mix of active materials such as transition metal oxides, layered metal oxides, olivines etc. These materials can have different design ... Read More

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Drive-Cycle Monitoring

This application shows how a battery cell exposed to a hybrid electric vehicle drive cycle can be investigated with the Lithium-Ion Battery interface in COMSOL. This model predicts the battery behavior to make comparisons of the monitored properties. They can be used to understand the ... Read More

Primary Current Distribution in a Lead-Acid Battery Grid Electrode

This 3D model example demonstrates the use of the Primary Current Distribution interface for modeling current distributions in electrochemical cells. In primary current distribution, the potential losses due to electrode kinetics and mass transport are assumed to be negligible, and ... Read More

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in a Fuel Cell

A fuel cell unit cell is modeled using the full Butler-Volmer expression for the anodic and cathodic charge transfer reactions. The anodic and cathodic overpotentials depend on the local ionic and electronic potentials, which are obtained from the charge balance equations for ionic and ... Read More

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Model for Internal Resistance and Voltage Loss Determination

This tutorial digs deeper into the investigation of rate capability in a battery and shows how the *Lithium-Ion Battery* interface is an excellent modeling tool for doing this. The rate capability is studied in terms of polarization (voltage loss) or the internal resistance causing this ... Read More

Soluble Lead-Acid Redox Flow Battery

In a redox flow battery electrochemical energy is stored as redox couples in the electrolyte, which is stored in tanks outside the electrochemical cell. During operation, electrolyte is pumped through the cell and, due to the electrochemical reactions, the individual concentrations of ... Read More

Transport Phenomena in a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

This tutorial models how the relative humidity of the inlet gases impacts the performance of a low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes humidity-dependent ionomer (electrolyte) conductivities, gas phase mass transport and water ionomer ... Read More

Discharge and Self-Discharge of a Lead-Acid Battery

Lead-acid batteries are widely used as starting batteries for various traction applications such as cars and trucks and so forth. The reason for this is the fairly low cost in combination with the performance robustness for a broad range of operating conditions. However, one drawback of ... Read More

Equivalent Circuit Model for a NiMH Battery

A simple equivalent circuit model approach is presented for Nickel metal hydride batteries. The 0D model consists of resistor, capacitor, current source and state-of-charge based voltage source (SOC). An Arrhenius type dependence is used to account for self-discharge. All model ... Read More