The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, mechanical, fluid, and chemical disciplines. You can download ready-to-use tutorial models and demo apps with step-by-step instructions for how to create them yourself. The examples in the gallery serve as a great starting point for your own simulation work.

Use the Quick Search to find tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise. Log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license to download the MPH-files.

Knudsen Minimum

When a constant pressure difference drives flow through a narrow constriction between parallel plates (or through a cylindrical tube), the flow rate exhibits a characteristic minimum as the absolute pressure at the inlet is reduced. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as Knudsen’s minimum, and occurs as a result of the rarefaction of the gas. The observation of a minimum in flow rate for ...

Rotating Plate in a Unidirectional Molecular Flow

This model computes the particle flux, number density and pressure on the surface of a plate that rotates in a highly directional molecular flow. The results obtained are compared with those from other, approximate, techniques for computing molecular flows.


This model shows how to compute the thickness of a thermally evaporated gold film. The thickness of the deposited film is computed both on the walls of the chamber and on the sample.

Molecular Flow in an Ion-Implant Vacuum System

The Ion Implanter Evaluator app considers the design of an ion implantation system. Ion implantation is used extensively in the semiconductor industry to implant dopants into wafers. Within an ion implanter, ions generated within an ion source are accelerated by an electric field to achieve the desired implant energy. Ions of the correct charge state are selected by means of a separation ...

Ultra-high Vacuum, Chemical Vapor Deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process often used in the Semiconductor industry to grow layers of high-purity solid material on top of a wafer substrate. CVD is achieved using many different techniques and across a range of pressures from atmospheric, to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV/CVD). UHV/CVD is performed at pressures below 10-6 Pa (10-8 Torr), so gas transport is achieved by molecular flow ...

Adsorption and Desorption of Water in a Load Lock Vacuum System

This model shows how to simulate the time-dependent adsorption and desorption of water in a vacuum system at low pressures. The water is introduced into the system when a gate valve to a load lock is opened and the subsequent migration and pumping of the water is modeled.

Outgassing Pipes

This benchmark model computes the pressure in a system of outgassing pipes with a high aspect ratio. The results are compared with a 1D simulation and a Monte-Carlo simulation of the same system from the literature.

Molecular Flow Through a Microcapillary

Computing molecular flows in arbitrary geometries produces complex integral equations that are very difficult to compute analytically. Analytic solutions are, therefore, only available for simple geometries. One of the earliest problems solved was that of gas flow through tubes of arbitrary length, which was first treated correctly by Clausing. Later, the integral expressions he derived were ...

Differential Pumping

Differentially pumped vacuum systems use a small orifice or tube to connect two parts of a vacuum system that are at very different pressures. Such systems are necessary when processes run at higher pressures and are monitored by detectors that require UHV for operation. In this model, gas flow through a narrow tube and into a high vacuum chamber is approximated using an analytic expression for ...

Neutralization of a Proton Beam through a Charge Exchange Cell

Gas cells have several applications in the design of scientific instruments. A gas cell is used to define a high-pressure region within the instrument's main vacuum system. For example, in this application, note we are designing a high-pressure region 100 mm long, with an operating pressure of 1e-3 Torr inside the collision cell and a main vacuum system pressure of 1e-5 Torr. In mass ...

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