Beam Characteristics of Ultrasonic Transducers for Underwater Marine UseG. McRobbie, P. Marin-Franch, and S. Cochrane
 University of Paisley
 Piezo Composite Transducers, Ltd
This paper illustrates how finite element analysis with COMSOL Multiphysics can be used to simulate the mechanical and electrical characteristics of piezoelectric transducers.
It also shows how beam transmit plots and performance measurements can be modeled by coupling between a piezo domain and a second domain governed by the wave equation.